Syrische Streitkräfte rücken in Hama ein (Politik, International, NZZ Online)


4. Juli 2011, 13:05, NZZ Online

Proteste überall, hier in Damaskus. Von einem Teilnehmer mit Mobiltelefon aufgenommen. (Bild: Reuters)Zoom

Proteste überall, hier in Damaskus. Von einem Teilnehmer mit Mobiltelefon aufgenommen. (Bild: Reuters)

ii./(dpa) Syrische Truppen sind am Montagvormittag in die Stadt Hama eingerückt. Dies berichtet die Nachrichtenagentur Reuters . Es seien mindestens dreissig Busse mit Soldaten in die Stadt gefahren, sagte ein Augenzeuge der Agentur. Die Soldaten hätten willkürlich zu schiessen begonnen, auch in Wohnquartieren. Ferner hätten sie Häuser umstellt und Leute festgenommen.

Offenbar befinden sich derzeit Tausende von Einwohnern der Stadt auf der Strasse. Junge Männer hätten mit Steinen und brennenden Autoreifen Blockaden errichtet. Die Leute rufen «Allah ist grösser», gemeint ist: grösser als die Regierung.

Auch in Damaskus gehen die Proteste weiter. Regierungstreue Truppen haben dort am Sonntag in einem Vorort zwei Demonstranten erschossen und mehrere Personen verletzt.

Versteckspiel mit Hüten: In den engen Gassen drehen die Demonstranten ihre Runden.

Die syrischen Flüchtlinge in der Türkei werden langsam unruhig. Einige von ihnen riefen am Montag zu einem Hungerstreik auf, um eine bessere Versorgung zu erreichen. Die türkischen Behörden, die sich bisher allein um die Flüchtlinge in der Grenzprovinz Hatay kümmern, sollten auch anderen Hilfsorganisationen Zugang zu den Lagern verschaffen. Einer der Organisatoren des Hungerstreiks sprach zudem von wachsendem Druck zur Rückkehr «von innen und von aussen».

Ein syrischer Helfer in der Türkei erklärte, die Lage in den Lagern sei angespannt, weil sich in den vergangenen zwei Wochen etliche Mitarbeiter des syrischen Geheimdienstes unter die Flüchtlinge gemischt hätten. Diese stifteten Unruhe und gäben Informationen nach Damaskus weiter.

Nach seinen Informationen seien seit Beginn der Krise insgesamt rund 4500 Flüchtlinge wieder nach Syrien zurückgekehrt. Die türkische Nachrichtenagentur Anadolu meldete am Montag, die Zahl der Flüchtlinge, die zwischenzeitlich bei über 11'000 gelegen hatte, sei inzwischen auf 9900 gefallen.

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Passpack Blog » Passpack is not LastPass. We Have a Big Friend


A few weeks ago LastPass had a serious breach of data. I don’t like to talk about the competitors, but this unlucky event generated a lot of articles, concern and fear. It also caused an increase in emails from Passpack users who are seriously concerned about their security and want to understand if what has happened to LastPass can happen also to Passpack.

I think not, but I can’t be sure because I don’t know the architectural details of LastPass, and I don’t know what happened to their data. I can say however, that compared with what I understood from their post, we use a few different approaches. For example, it seems that they had all the services on the same network. We have always had totally separate sandboxes for the different Passpack properties. This eliminates the risk that a bug in the blogging or support ticket systems could open up the core application to attack.

But speaking more specifically to the data loss and the risk of a dictionary attack issue, we use a non-standard approach to work around this risk. I’ll explain that here, and at the bottom of the post is also some code so that anyone, LastPass included, can employ it if they’d like.

When I was a child, I was fragile, thin, short and delicate. I was the typical victim of children bigger than me. I remember that during a Christmas vacation, after having been bullied yet again, my grandfather said to me: “if you can not defend yourself, you need a big friend that can defend both of you”. I took his advise, got a big friend, and I never had problem for the rest of my childhood.

Still now that I am a grown man, I am more at ease knowing that I can count on a big, trustworthy friend if necessary. We’ve used this “big friend” approach in Passpack as well. It’s one of the components we use in solving the hash problem that is the main focus of this post. The full details are very technical, so please be patient.

I don’t always agree with LastPass’ choices (see my post on how sharing “masked passwords” is a serious security hole), however they are a good company, and their choice to inform their users about what was happening in a quick and open way was the right one. They knew the risks of that choice, but they chose to do what was best for their users over what was best for their public image. I applaud them and would surely do the same.

The reaction of the press to their announcement was less impressive. I was surprised by the superficial knee-jerk reactions from some blogs, including the prestigious LifeHacker. Instead of investigating to understand if there could have been ways for an online password manager to have avoided such an incident, they simply assumed there was not and suggested users go back to offline tools.

This is not a solution. It is a step back of at least five years and doesn’t help people that need something that only the cloud can offer – collaboration and access. Every day we all connect to Facebook, Twitter, PayPal and many other services. If we refuse to persevere and solve important issues in the cloud, then we might as well you turn off our computers now. Problems need solutions, not avoidance. Maybe the current solutions are not ideal, but if we stop the progress we will never have a definitive solution.

We can call the best engineers in the world to manage our server security, but if you join the name of your sons and use it like your Packing Key you are very lucky if nobody entered your account yet. So, the first thing to do, in any case, is to choose a really strong Packing Key. Believe me, it is not difficult. A good pass phrase could be something like: my grandma had a strange green bbq or when I jump I can not stop laughing. You simply need a sentence that is  easy to remember for you. You will discover that it will be also easy to write. And, most importantly, I can tell you that it will be very resistant to every attack.

Here are some basics. Every web application that doesn’t use a federated authentication system (like Facebook connect) needs something form of password to identify the user. Old systems used to save the passwords directly in a database. Recently (fortunately) most will save a derivation of the password generated using an hash function instead. What is a hash?

cryptographic hash function is a deterministic procedure that takes an arbitrary block of data and returns a fixed-size bit string (via Wikipedia).

There are certain algorithms that can take text, and create a different text that identifies it – it doesn’t transform it, it just identifies it, like a fingerprint. The result is called a hash string, and that string can’t be reversed. For example, if you take the Wikipedia definition above and run it through a SHA1 hash function, you obtain the following result:


Now, if you change just one thing, anything in that Wikipedia definition, then you will get a completely different result. For example, if you remove the period at the end of the paragraph, the new hash would be:


As you can see the two hashes are the same length, but they are totally different.

Here’s another example. If you hash the word “password” you get another different result, but again, it’s the same length, 40 characters:


So every string that you hash with a SHA1 function has always the same size, being (almost) always different. It doesn’t matter how long or short the original text is, it will always produce the same size hash. Both your ATM PIN number and “War and Peace” would both have a hexadecimal 40 character hash. This makes hashes perfect for identifying something without knowing what that something actually is.

In fact, hash functions are used in your ATM and credit cards to protect the pin.

Unfortunately there are methods to discover the original string, starting from the hashed one, even though it’s not technically a reversal. The most used hacking method is the so-called Dictionary Attack. A dictionary attack simply means that the attacker takes an entire dictionary of words, and tries to guess your password. Alas, people tend to use always the same passwords or very common words. Some time ago Twitter banned 370 common passwords from use in  its accounts because it was really dangerous to allow users to choose a password like password, testingnaked, stupid, 123456, etc.

Since hash algorithms are known, an attacker can simply run all the dictionary words through the algorithm and compare the result with an existing hash (perhaps that he’s somehow stolen) and see if they match. When the two hashes match, he then knows what the original password was.

Of course, to make hacking more efficient, there are dictionaries of the hashes of the dictionary words (so called Rainbow Tables), available for the outputs of all the major algorithms (SHA256, MD5, etc.). Therefore,  the very first step in protecting users is to salt their hashes. This means that before running a string through a hash algorithm, some additional text is “mixed in” with it  (like adding a dash of salt to your hash browns :) so that the result is at least not so easily looked up in the dictionary of hashes.

At Passpack we use several different combinations with iterations of SHA256 adding in the user’s clientcode as salt. Since that is unique for every user, even if two users use the same Packing Key the hashes will be different. Does that completely solve the problem? No, not yet. It’s a first step to raising the bar a bit since it wards off mass attacks, forcing a potential hacker to try and match hashes one by one.

So at this point, if you’ve been paying attention, you should realize that if you chose a strong Packing Key, then you would not be susceptible to these dictionary attacks (and if you don’t have a strong Packing Key, now is as good a time as any to change it).

We can urge you all the time to create a good Packing Key, but it’s still our job to build the system to be as a secure as possible, regardess of your choices. That means that for all the work we do to build a secure server infrastructure, and make it as close to impossible as we can to penetrate it, we still need to plan for the rare case in which someone does, indeed, get in. Everyone works hard to make sure that this doesn’t happen, but sometimes it still does. This is what just happened to LastPass.

So what are the possible solutions to protect users?

One of the methods used to minimize the risk of a dictionary attack is a strong key derivation function like PBKDF2. According to their post, this is the solution LastPass is looking into.

It works like this: instead simply saving the hash to the database once you receive it on the server, you first run it through another algorithm… many, many, many times. For example 50,000 times. Then you save that to the database. By doing so you slow down the potential hacker by the same number of times. This makes cracking the hash wildly inefficient for the hacker, if not impossible.

The problem with this method is that the server has to work intensively to derive the original hash and you’ll wind up with some serious performance issues. The result is that you can not use this method if you have a lot of users because you risk continuous server downtimes. PBKDF2 is therefore not a real solution for web applications.

Passpack is a small company. We do our absolute best to build the safest infrastructure possible, but we can not spend a lot of money to build our own bomb-proof servers. So I decided to find a big friend, someone that  can share with us the work and, in defending himself, defends us as well.

I wrote a super simple application on Google App Engine called Spino. Spino runs on a Google account that I use only for this app and for nothing else. Spino collaborates with Passpack to create a distributed solution for the hash problem.

How does it work? It’s quite complex, but here’s a simplified description:

  • The User types his Packing Key
  • The Browser applies an hash function to the Packing Key using the clientcode as salt
  • The Browser sends the hash of the Packing Key to Passpack
  • Passpack sends the temporary hashes to Spino
  • Spino verifies it is receiving the hashes from the real Passpack
  • Spino applies a secret hash function to the original hashes and sends it back to Passpack
  • Passpack saves this result in the database

Until some time ago, Spino was on another server and probably in the future we could move it on some other one. Also, to further strengthen the pattern we could distribute the hash manipulation across multiple, external apps on multiple servers using different technologies.

The risk in a solution like this is that if the external platform — in our case Google App Engine — goes down, it would be impossible to login to Passpack. But since we’ve implemented this solution, we’ve had no such complaints. On the other hand, the big advantage is that even in the rare event that an attacker were to grab the Passpack database, he would not be able to do anything with it unless he is also able to penetrate Google.  And Google is a really big friend.

To maintain good performance, once again, we use an encrypted cookie as a distributed cache. In fact, only the server can decrypt the cookie, but the server needs the browser to access the cookie itself.

As you can imagine, Passpack uses other techniques to strengthen the theoretically weak points, though I can not tell you all of them. Another thing that my grandfather used to say often was: “Always tell the truth, but keep a little something for yourself”.

If you like Spino’s approach, feel free to use it. It is open to all.

When I decided to move it from the previous server to Google App Engine, in a week-end I learned Python and I ported the script, so I am sure that you can create and deploy your app from scratch in 20 minutes using the following code.

# Spino, a remote hasher
# version 1.2
# Copyright (c) 2009+ Francesco Sullo, Passpack SRL
# Licensed as Open Source under MIT License

import hashlib
import os

from google.appengine.ext import webapp
from google.appengine.ext.webapp.util import run_wsgi_app

def hashx(val):
    salt = 'Wow! I am a super salt. Please change me!'
    # just a few interactions
    iterations = 20000
    cont = 0
    while cont  iterations:
        m = hashlib.sha256()
        m.update(salt + val)
        val = m.hexdigest()
        cont = cont+1
    return val

class MainPage(webapp.RequestHandler):
    def get(self):
        self.response.headers['Content-Type'] = 'text/plain'
            a = self.request.get('a')
            e = os.environ['REMOTE_ADDR']
            # set your authorized referer IP or IPs:
            if e == '':
                ret = hashx(a)
        self.response.out.write('Hello, World!')

application = webapp.WSGIApplication(
    [('/', MainPage)],

def main():

if __name__ == "__main__":

Comments (1)

Toni Birrer

Toni Birrer Jun 19, 2011

Guess what, I clipped the same blog post a few weeks back. Great idea with that multihash setup.